Intrinsic Motivation and Health Care

When do extrinsic and intrinsic motivation conflict? Health care seems like a natural spot to look for – though it may be reasonable to think about this as image motivation having a larger effect than extrinsic motivation.

“Information and Quality When Motivation is Intrinsic: Evidence from Surgeon Report Cards”, by Jonathan Kolstad

“If profit maximization is the objective of a firm, new information about quality should affect firm behavior only through its effects on market demand. I consider an alternate model in which suppliers are motivated by a desire to perform well in addition to profit. The introduction of quality “report cards” for cardiac surgery in Pennsylvania provides an empirical setting to isolate the relative role of extrinsic and intrinsic incentives in determining surgeon response. Information on performance that was new to surgeons and unrelated to patient demand led to an intrinsic response four times larger than surgeon response to profit incentives.”

Paper available from the NBER (gated).

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Taxation and Development

A new paper by Besley and Persson illuminating the relationship between development and patterns of taxation.

A quick summary from the conclusion of the paper:

“As a state moves from collecting a low level of public revenue of around 10%
of national income towards collecting around 40%, tax bases typically shift
from trade taxes and excises towards labor income and other broad bases
such as value added. To study this process is a challenge of appreciating
incentives and constraints.”

Paper available (ungated) through the LSE

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Assessing Trustworthiness

Why are some people more trusting than others? From a new CEPR paper by Jeff Butler, Paola Giuliano and Luigi Guiso:

“we show that individuals extrapolate from their own type when forming trust beliefs about the same pool of potential partners”
Link to Abstract at CEPR

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Determinants of Democracy

From Nathan Nunn and Paola Giuliano

Abstract
We provide evidence that a history of democracy at the local level is associated with contemporary democracy at the national level. Auxiliary estimates show that a tradition of local democracy is also associated with attitudes that favor democracy, with better quality institutions, and higher level of economic development.

Paper available from IZA

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Technological Diffusion

In Economic Growth, we are focusing on technology, efficiency and productivity tomorrow. Here is a current related paper from the Centre for Economic Policy Research.

From the Abstract
“We find significant evidence that technology diffuses slower to locations that are farther away from adoption leaders. This effect is stronger across rich countries and also when measuring distance along the south-north dimension.”

Link to CEPR abstract.

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Insuring Against the Weather

Possibly of interest to students in both micro theory (insurance) and the MIPP program (food security), this short brief from IFPRI looks at the effects of micro-insurance in Ethiopia.

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Research and Conservative Talking Points

The connection between culture and economic growth is a complicated one – made particularly difficult by the fact that cultures change far more slowly than patterns in economic growth. Regardless, this column is remarkable for being a concise argument for why conservative culture drives economic growth. It would be fair to call me a skeptic.

H/T to Dan Herman, PhD student at the Balsillie School of International Affairs.

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Did the Food Price Crisis Reduce Food Security?

Recent evidence from Derek Headey at IFPRI on the impact of the food price crisis using self-reported levels of food-insecurity.

Abstract

We provide the first large-scale survey-based evidence on the impact of the global food crisis of 2007–08 using an indicator of self-assessed food security from the Gallup World Poll. For the sampled countries as a whole, this subjective indicator of food security remained the same or even improved, seemingly owing to a combination of strong economic growth and limited food inflation in some of the most populous countries, particularly India. However, these favorable global trends mask divergent trends at the national and regional levels, with a number of countries reporting substantial deterioration in food security. The impacts of the global crisis therefore appear to be highly context specific.

Article available at the World Bank Economic Review

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Information Asymmetry and Corporate Finance

This week in micro theory we are focused on adverse selection. A current article in VoxEU looks at the issue of information asymmetry in capital markets, and finds the evidence one might expect – information asymmetries increase the cost of raising capital.

VoxEU link here

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The End of Hunger and Malnutrition

Tomorrow in the International Policy class, we are focused on food policy issues – so the column by the Director-General of the FAO today in Project Syndicate is very topical.

The key point is that “The Council of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization decided that the FAO’s goal should no longer be merely to reduce hunger, but to eradicate hunger, food insecurity, and malnutrition.”

Full column at Project Syndicate.

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